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Aug 10, 2009

by Kate Howe, VIA’s Urban Planner

I am just back from attending the APTA sustainability conference in Utah’s Salt Lake City. The sessions focus on tackling climate change – increasing transit accessibility to the pedestrian, land use integration and green design. This is the fifth in the sustainability workshop series, and reflects how transit agencies have moved forward to implementation of sustainability strategies – from Ben Franklin Transit’s ethanol/biodiesel fuel mix in Louisville, to the 25 iphone apps created by creative types for Portland Tri-met that help to blend transit use into the everyday life.

I thought that the star session was the first session, a panel discussion with the new Deputy Administrators appointed by the Obama Administration – three articulate progressives from the EPA – HUD- DOT that travel together to talk about how to create new efficiencies between the three agencies and link transportation funding to land use and environmental policy. Unimaginable only a year ago – these three have their work cut out for them.

Jim Lopez – a former Seattlite who went to Washington with Ron Sims, is now heading up HUD’s Sustainable Communities office. This office is beginning to pay attention and understands that to win the smart growth battle- many communities would benefit from Federal technical assistance to conduct long range planning. Lopez in particular discussed the need for a large scale audit of land use policies in order to make legal the mixed-urban environments that are the hallmark of low VMT, low energy use communities. DOT noted that new funding sources will be shifted towards move competitive grants, to reward transit agencies and municipalities that work together, and will attempt to move away from the dedicated funding streams that may allow inferior quality work – or projects that really don’t benefit the long term.

This discussion segued nicely into a talk by the Brooking’s Institute Christopher Leinberger – who from his perspective as reformist real estate mogul, discussed the market pendulum swinging back from a concentration on single family suburban to mixed-use and urban – simply because this housing type remains significantly under built. He writes that “the most compelling evidence is the price premium people are willing to pay to live in a walkable urban place, that the survey’s show anywhere from a 40% to 200% price premium on a price per square foot basis for a walkable urban place as oppose to a competitive near by drivable suburban place.”

He also highlights the demographics: in twenty years the shrinking household size we are already seeing will only become more pronounced; only 14% of households will have children with 80% being singles and couples. To accommodate a complexity of household types, as well as rising costs in infrastructure he talked about how we need to move the real estate industry from the NASCAR model — quick (and often low quality) green field projects to the Jet Plane – by necessity more complex transactions in urban areas.

The second day included a session on the new FTA sponsored research report “Moving Cooler” that itemizes strategies on how public transport and related transportation systems can be shifted to aggressively respond to climate with GHG emissions reductions. This is an important project for APTA and all public transit advocates – because it helps to get the word out- particularly to fill in the information gap now operating in Congress about transit and its impact on climate mitigation.

Data is lining up in favor of compact development, and increased investment in transit to reduce GHG emissions (and all kinds of other ills). Unfortunately the “business as usual” approach endures, exemplified by the AASHTO lobbyist who stood at the podium making the (misguided) claim to an audience of public transit operators and sustainability advocates that you “can build your way out of congestion” — like we do in UTAH! He also said that they stop at nothing to ensure an uncongested freeway. Wow –they must be really nervous about the new Federal Reauthorization Bill!

by David Hiller, Advocacy Director Cascade Bicycle Club

Across Europe, the 22nd of September is a day when town centers close to cars and trucks, and open up for people to enjoy walking, cycling, live music, dancing, public art and children’s play areas. The event, called In Town, Without My Car!, represents a turning point in how we view the public space normally devoted to the movement and storage of private motor vehicles.

In Town, Without My Car!, Ciclovia’s and events like them allow us to question what our streets are really for, and whether we’re striking the right balance between the differing and often competing needs of street users. Should these public spaces be designed to maximize throughput of motor traffic, or should the emphasis be on creating places where people can engage in life’s activities in relative peace and quiet and safety? However brief, street closures give us a tantalizing glimpse of what our downtowns could be like with fewer cars and more people.
In Town, Without My Car! is a campaign that shares the streets-for-people philosophy of the London Mayor’s Transport Strategy – using the streets as social spaces and for public transport, walking and bicycling. It is about improving the quality of life, allowing people to come together and see how much better life can be when cars are simply withdrawn from the urban mix. The campaign’s objective is simple, to give priority to people over traffic.

Too often, town centers have been sacrificed to busy roads: the New Deal for Transport will give priority to people over traffic… We want towns and cities to be places where people want to live. The New Deal for transport will support the urban renaissance that is essential to revitalize urban living… this means people being able to go about their daily business without being intimidated by traffic… Traffic can be calmed from the outset by designing for low speeds. Sometimes new developments can be designed to be ‘car free’. (Source: A New Deal for Transport – Better For Everyone, DETR, July 1998 (all from UK Dept for Transport))

Our local version, Celebrate Seattle Summer Streets, is only in its second year, but has become a part of the fabric of the city. While fourteen events between April and September are hardly a revolution, they are a first important step toward reclaiming these valuable public spaces. Celebrate Seattle Summer Streets opens up streets to pedestrians and bicyclists, offering people a way to have fun, celebrate the spirit and personality of their neighborhood, and support local businesses. Alki Beach was a blast with thousands of visitors, and this coming weekend, on Saturday, August 8, Rainier Avenue – a busy arterial in the south end of town – will be closed in Columbia City.

The message is simple; Streets are the souls of our neighborhoods and the pathways to the region’s destinations. They are more than just car corridors; they are valuable civic spaces, resources, which must be wisely allocated.

This approach is far from new. In the early 1970’s Copenhagen inverted its planning pyramid – putting people first, followed in 1982 by Amsterdam’s policy officially giving priority to the bicycle. Similarly, in 1996 Vancouver, B.C. chose to prioritize walking, biking, transit and goods movement, while limiting single-occupancy vehicle accommodation. Ten years after implementing that policy, miles driven in Vancouver has decreased 29% – though the number of all trips increased 23%. At the same time, there was almost no increase in congestion.

This practice of putting people and places ahead of cars is called “mode priority.” Mode priority is the basic concept behind a wide range of transportation and planning reforms. It changes how we allocate road space, fund projects and commit resources. Moreover, it is the guiding doctrine that transformed car-choked cities in Europe into world leaders in mobility and livability.

Locally, Washington State’s Growth Management Act requires that cities adopt and regularly update Comprehensive Plans of Development. Under the Act cities must also identify a suitable Level of Service for public infrastructure, which must be met within a fixed period following new development. For too many communities it is convenient to default to an arbitrary Level of Service (LOS) based on vehicle delay. The infrastructure needed to meet that standard in many cases undermines or actually prevents travelling by foot or bicycle. There are alternatives, while I don’t have the room to go into them here, Multi-Modal LOS’s are rare or new, or even complicated.

Inverting the planning hierarchy or mode priority would make safe, convenient, and comfortable travel by foot the paramount priority. For our part, the Cascade Bicycle Club is working to pass legislation that will make this the official planning paradigm of the City of Seattle.

Our cities and towns need to invest billions to accommodate the 25% of trips that are less than one-mile, and the 40% that less than two-miles by the most efficient means possible – by foot or bicycle. Fortunately, the days are numbered for the outdated and inequitable investment and management strategies that fail to prioritize our rights of way for the safest and most efficient access for our most vulnerable and least impactful users. And that number might just be September 22.

2nd Image Credit: Seattle CAN

by Peg MacDonald, Architect @ VIA’s Vancouver Office

Before seeing the Velo-City exhibit, I took the opportunity of a singularly spectacular sunny summer Saturday to join a bike tour. The ‘Vancouverism by Bicycle’ tours are being offered in conjunction to the Velo-City exhibition, on Saturdays until August 22 at 10am. (So the $45 admission fee is a little steep, but it does include the regular admission fee ($11), and includes two hours on the Seawall talking about architecture…)


John, our guide (and a Planner), led us from the Museum of Vancouver across the newly bike-dedicated northbound sidewalk of the Burrard Street bridge and along the Seawall. From the west end, we traced the rise of ‘Vancouverism’ from its roots in the 60s (Beach Towers) through Concord Pacific and around False Creek to the budding development of Southeast False Creek. Tim, our Vancouver Area Cycling Coalition rep (carrying such necessities as first aid and flat tire kits) brought up the tail.

It’s not a chronological ride, but seeing the exchange of influence between the early (Beach Towers and Granville Island) and the more recent (Concord Pacific, the Roundhouse, and SEFC) made the dialogue all the clearer for the historical alternation.

The ride and discussion was like a tour of VIA influences and work. I wasn’t undercover, since I’d already confessed my profession and office before the ride began – so whether or not John meant all those nice things he said about the Roundhouse being the heart and soul of the neighbourhood, I may never know.
(I think he did.)


Our last stop was at in the heart of the residential side of Granville Island, and a little discussion on alternative housing models. There was something very familiar about the scene…


There’s so much intricacy to the development of Vancouverism, the podium/point tower model, North and Southeast False Creek, that it is impossible to include all the sordid details in a two-hour tour. Naturally, there were holes in the discussion. But really, they’re only noticeable if you’ve heard many versions of the stories over time. The broad strokes were there.

Back at the Museum, the Velo-City exhibition was a well-assembled glimpse into Vancouver’s cycling mainstream and counter-culture. A timeline marked various points in the development of Vancouver’s cycling culture, from the first bylaw to regulate bikes (#258, in 1886) to Alison Sydor’s victory at the Cape Epic Challenge in South Africa (2009). All along this timeline, the connection between the cycling community’s powerful activism and the City’s development of bicycle amenities is clear.


Lining one wall hang portraits of a variety of cyclists – professionals, commuters, casuals and kids – including maps of their frequent routes and interviews on why they bike. Across the room, a photowall displays more casual images of known and unknown cyclists, and quotes about their experiences riding. Two monitors mounted within this collage stream submitted images from a Flickr page. (see the website for details on how to submit your image)


Some extraordinary bikes are on display, including unicycling pioneer Kris Holm’s mountain unicycle (plus an accompanying video), and some more original creations – including the Monkey’s Wedding Tall Bike by Paul Bogaert (aka tall pol). This bike was built specifically to ride at Burning Man events.


There’s also a video room with films by and about cycling culture, and room of chalkboard walls that invites your tags and slogans.

Designers and curators Propellor Design have done an fine job expressing the freedom and passion so treasured and celebrated by Vancouver cyclists of all stripes. For myself, it had been quite a while since I’d taken the role of cyclist through the city, and longer still since I’d ridden the Seawall.

It won’t be quite so long until the next time.

Notable moments in Vancouver cycling:

1886: Vancouver City Council passes bylaw #258 to regulate the use of bicycles, which must henceforth not exceed 8 mph.

1902: The Vancouver Bicycle Club is formed.

1928: The Bartholomew Plan proposes a continuous waterfront parkway from Stanley Park around False Creek.

1968: Protests force Vancouver to scrap plans for the Chinatown Freeway, which later becomes part of the route for the Adanac Bikeway.

1978: A couple of guys in a Vancouver bike store modify road bikes with wide tires, straight bars, and thumb-shifters. This is the first experience with ‘mountain’ bikes for the soon-to-be Rocky Mountain founders.

1986: Gordon Price is elected to Vancouver City Council and becomes a champion of cycling.

1990-91: The Gastown Grand Prix is won by a young Lance Armstrong.

1996: Riders take to the streets for Vancouver’s first Critical Mass ride.

2008: Bike Month [June] is capped off with the largest Critical Mass ride yet; more than 5000 Vancouverites take to the streets on their cycles.

Velo-City runs until September 7th
Museum of Vancouver
1100 Chestnut Street (Vanier Park)
www.museumofvancouver.ca
Check with the Museum’s website for confirmation of the ‘Vancouverism by Bicycle’ tour schedule.

Here is the third clip from the Seattle debate that talks about the layout of the two cities, and where it’s easier to bike. Although it seems like there is an obvious winner here, watch this clip and let us know your opinion.

The opening of the Sound Transit Central Link Light Rail last week has caused me to both reflect and to look ahead.

Link Light Rail was the project that brought me to Seattle. That was ten years ago. VIA was retained by Sound Transit to develop the design concepts for Capitol and First Hill Stations and to develop the system wide architectural standards for Link.


When we joined the project the engineering team had already been working on the project for a year and a half. In those early days of the project the sense amongst the design team was that Link Light Rail was going to be a catalyst for Seattle to become a more sustainable, more livable, less car dominated city. I remember thinking at the time that we would be riding Link from the University to the Airport sometime in 2006. That was before everything that possibly could go wrong went wrong.


It is hard to fathom how a transit system could take so long to conceive, build and make operational; eleven and a half years from design start to opening day of Central Link; and that’s opening day for only a part of the system that had been envisioned — the Capitol Hill Station we were designing back in 1999 won’t be finished for another seven years.

The technical parts of transit systems don’t take this long to design and construct. It’s the other dysfunctional stuff that takes all the time. Most of the delays for Link were due to funding and budget squabbles which thankfully Sound Transit was able to navigate through; otherwise opening day may never had happened.

How does this checkered past bode for the future at a time when we need transit more than ever? With the opening of Central Link, will Seattleites get a taste for light rail that will make them want more? Will we make demands for more service, delivered more quickly?


Based on our experience with the later phases of SkyTrain in Vancouver, I am optimistic that public demand and political will can indeed accelerate the process of getting transit built. The Millennium Line, similar in scale and complexity to the Central Link segment that opens on Saturday, took only four years to design and build, opening in 2002. As an extension to the original Expo Line it was able to build upon the public acceptance already in place for SkyTrain, and was implemented in an aggressive time frame due to a political mandate from the BC Government.

The good news is that construction is now underway on the next portion of Link called U-Link, which extends Central Link northward between Westlake Station and UW. It is slated to be completed and operational by 2016. In Vancouver, a similar LRT extension called Canada Line is opening in a month. This extension, which is more comparable in character and complexity to a North Link segment between Westlake Station and Northgate, only took seven years to complete from design start to opening day.


How can Vancouver build so much more LRT in the same time frame? In Vancouver people enjoy their LRT and want more. In Seattle, we should be able to do the same. The answer: Ride Link…and want more! Let’s celebrate last Saturday’s opening of Link and then set our sights on aggressive goals for transit in our region.


The planet deserves for our city to be more sustainable.

As a slight interruption to our transit posts, I wanted to link to this article that came out in the Vancouver Sun by Michael Geller last Friday.

When asked to speak to Urban Land Institute individuals from Portland to Seattle, Geller had this to say:

“Over a day-and-a-half, the Vancouver/Seattle debate continued, with the Portland delegates making the case for their wonderful city.

I talked about the mayor of Vancouver’s desire to be the greenest city in the world, and while the American delegates did not laugh, they did smile, since both Seattle and Portland are considered the two most sustainable cities in the United States.

But there are similarities. As Vancouver gets ready to start its rapid transit line from the airport to the downtown, today Seattle is opening its long awaited 23-km, $2.3 billion light-rail line that will connect its downtown to Tukwila. An extension to SeaTac airport will begin later this year.”

Click here to read the entire article.

Alan Hart, one of VIA’s principals, recently found this newspaper clipping that he had saved from a 1982 British Columbia paper, that talks about the new SkyTrain system coming to Vancouver and why the government should “scrap” the system now and go back to more conventional methods — a great read.

____________________________________________________________________

The case to abort ALRT

Is system unproven and too expensive…

Or far-thinking step to meet area needs?

from The Province, by Andrew Ross


Bob Bose, chairman of the rapid transit committee of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, calls the Advanced Light Rapid Transit system a billion-dollar gamble.

“The wisest and most prudent thing to do,” says the Surrey aldermen, “would be to abandon this unproven technology and begin converting immediately to a conventional system.”

At, he says, only one-third of the cost.He sounded this alarm to the GVRD last week, sparking a new round of debate on the costs and merits of the ALRT system, and calls from the GVRD’s transit committee for a full accounting from the provincial government.

Education Minister Bill Vander Zalm, Victoria’s minister in charge of transit, notes Bose is seeking re-election to Surrey council Nov. 20, and declares: “Mr. Bose obviously is running a campaign.” But it is finally becoming clear to the members of Bose’s committee that the ALRT system is a highly expensive technological experiement that will cost Greater Vancouver taxpayers enormous amounts. The Social Credit government neglected to mention a few things when it announced, at a breakfast meeting in Vancouver on Dec. 6, 1980, that it had chosen a space-age technology (Which uses a magnetic propulsion system and has computers instead of engineers) to answer the needs of a region suffering from hardening of the traffic arteries.

For more than a decade prior to the announcement, the GVRD and Vancouver-area municipalities had pleaded with the government to help them build a conventional light rapid transit system, using an updated version of the streetcar system on ground-level railroad tracks. Finally the government relented. That announcement almost two years ago took them by surprise because they had little or no knowledge of ALRT. But mostly they were relieved.

The decision to build ALRT, after all, included a commitment to use the line long advocated by the GVRD and member municipalities. And, perhaps more significantly, the decision seemed to contain a government promise to build the system without reaching into the wallets of Greater Vancouver’s taxpayers. As Bose puts it, municipal leaders “assumed” that, since the system was being “imposed” on them by Victoria, the provincial government would be paying for it.

Last month, it became clear to civic leaders that, by agreeing to become willing partners in the development of ALRT, the GVRD had made a tacit commitment to contribute financially to the system, and in a big way.

And that leads to the first of some key questions:

How much is ALRT going to cost to build?

The government has, for more than a year, placed the cost of constructing the system at about $718 million in 1986 dollars. But B.C. Transit, the Crown agency helping to administer the project, now concedes that the estimate omits interest on capital borrowed for the job. Socred MLA Jack Davis, chairman of the Rapid Transit (1986) Committee, said last month that almost $600 million must be borrowed through a government bond scheme for ALRT. (Both the federal and provincial governments have already contributed $60 million each for the project).

Bose says ALRT will cost $40 million a kilometer to build – something like $1 billion including the cost of borrowing – and he says that is three times as much as a conventional aystem.

B.C. Transit says his figures exaggerate the interest rates it hopes to obtain when it borrows the $600 million. It hopes to persuade the federal government to make interest-free loans available for ALRT and thereby help reduce the cost of borrowing.

How much is ALRT going to cost to operate?

Bose predicts annual operating costs of about $160 million. Neither Davis nor B.C. Transit project administrator Mike O’Connor was able to give an estimate, and won’t until B.C. Transit negotiates a price with B.C. Hydro for electricity to power the system.

And who pays?

Davis confirmed that Greater Vancouver municipalities will be required to share operating costs once the system is operational. And he and O’Connor agree that operating costs will include not only any deficit that remains after fare-box revenues are deducted but also the amortization costs of the capital borrowed for building.


That’s what municipal leaders didn’t realize at first. The cost-sharing formula, according to Vander Zalm, will be the same one now in place for the operating deficit of the existing transit system in Greater Vancouver. Under this formula the GVRD must pay 35 per cent of the transit deficit, from funds collected via the fare box. If those funds fall short of 35 per cent the GVRD must make up the difference. It also must pay one-third of the remaining 65 per cent of the transit deficit. In all, the GVRD faces a bill of up to 57 per cent of the operating costs. Victoria will pay the remainder.

Bose predicts that only about six per cent of the GVRD’s share will come directly from the fare box, leaving the region’s taxpayers with a bill amounting to 51 per cent of the annual operating costs—about $80 million a year.

The only options open to civic leaders to pay it will be to sock taxpayers with yet another surcharge on gasoline and Hydro, or with higher property taxes.

How many people will use the system?

B.C. Transit confidently predicts that ALRT will have about 30 million passengers annually. O’Connor himself goes further and predicts 40 million.

But the GVRD, which spent more than a decade analyzing commuter patterns and transit “ridership,” has predicted that a conventional system – which would travel basically the same route as ALRT – would attract only about 15 million passengers annually. (However, the GVRD has no ridership predictions on ALRT). The ridership figures, Bose says, are something else civic leaders failed to pursue when they attended the Socred breakfast meeting almost two years ago. If they had asked some hard questions then, Bose suggests, their long-held commitment to conventional light rapid transit might not have been relinquished so readily.

Which raises another question:

Why this system rather than a conventional one?

Vander Zalm said almost two years ago that ALRT stood a better chance of qualitying for federal funds than a conventional system because it’s exclusively Canadian in design and construction. Ottawa subsequently contributed $60 million toward the capital cost of Greater Vancouver’s ALRT. (It was never asked, though, how much it would be willing to contribute to a conventional system.) Also, Vander Zalm said, an ALRT vehicle will be cheaper to run than a conventional one because it will have no driver.

But critics of the system reply that many people will be leery of riding a train that has no operator. Opponents also suggest that ALRT was also chosen by the government because it promised something different and innovative – something to brag about when Greater Vancouver becomes the transportation showpiece of North America during Expo ’86. All that a conventional system had to recommend itself, by comparison, was dependability at a low price.

The critics also contend that, if ALRT doesn’t work as planned, its tracks and elevated system simply cannot be converted to carry conventional LRT trains. Meaning that if the gamble doesn’t come off, the bills are going to be that much more horrendous.

Whether the choice of ALRT was a wise or foolish gamble won’t be known until it’s too late to turn back, the critics say. Scrap it now, says Bose, and go conventional.

“It’s not too late. The government (B.C. Transit) has only spent about $40 million so far, and getting out at that price would be a bargain considering the eventual cost.”

copyright The Province newspaper, division of Canwest Publishing Inc.


At least we got one rapid transit project built!

Congratulations to Sound Transit on the opening of the Link Light Rail, July 18, 2009.

Here is the second clip from the Seattle debate that highlights a discussion on transit in Seattle and Vancouver.

Who’s got it right? Vancouver with an integrated multimodal transit network and no downtown highways? Or Seattle with a comprehensive highway network and a brand new transit line?

Watch this clip and let us know what you think:

We are excited to have guest blogger Knute Berger, Crosscut’s chief Northwest native and author of Pugetopolis, to kick off the Seattle vs. Vancouver Parks discussion. Among many other thought-provoking blog posts on Crosscut, he wrote an excellent piece on The Great Urban Debate.
PARKS: SEATTLE vs VANCOUVER
by Knute Berger

Every Seattleite who visits Vancouver envies Stanley Park: beautiful woods, trees and trails, a wonderful perimeter pathway, amenities like restaurants and tribal totem poles. Like great city parks, it offers both retreat and activities. Who wouldn’t want one in their city?


Seattle has approached parks differently. We have no big central park, but the elements of one have been dispersed throughout the city: a zoo in Woodland Park, an Arboretum and tea garden in Montlake, waterfront walkways at Lincoln Park, Discovery Park, Seward Park and Green Lake. Much of this is threaded together by Olmsted-designed boulevards. It seems to me that Seattle has de-centralized the urban park and made many of its neighborhoods park-like.



In the 1990s, Seattle battled over creating a big central park at South Lake Union with land to be donated by Paul Allen. Proponents of the “Seattle Commons” argued that it would fix a long-standing central park deficit in Seattle and help spur development. Opponents argued that it was too expensive, too much of a benefit a single developer (Allen), and some questioned the need for a Stanley-like Park. From the top of the Space Needle, you can see at least three U.S. national parks. In other words, who needs central park when your city is adjacent to world-class protected wilderness and recreation areas?


So my questions are, does Seattle need a central park? And how would Vancouver have developed, for better or worse, without one? Is a central park’s main value now that it is a magnet for dense development? And lacking a central park, what should Seattle do, if anything, to make up for that?

Obviously, the days of acquiring a large Stanley Park tract are gone, short of a neighborhood-leveling Katrina-like disaster or a dramatic Detroit-like depopulation of the urban core. Is this truly a significant loss, or can Seattle successfully evolve without its own Stanley Park?